This Day in History
Daily historical facts, events, famous birthdays, world history. Discover what happened today in history.
211 - [[Septimius Severus]] -dies at Eboracum (modern York, England) while preparing to lead a campaign against the Caledonians. He leaves the empire in the control of his two quarrelling sons.
634 - [[Battle of Dathin]] -Rashidun army|Rashidun forces under Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan defeat the Christian Arabs around Gaza City|Gaza (Palestine).
960 - [[Emperor Taizu of Song]] -initiating the Song dynasty period of China that would last more than three centuries.
1169 - [[1169 Sicily earthquake|strong earthquake]] -struck the Ionian coast of Sicily, causing tens of thousands of injuries and deaths, especially in Catania.
1454 - [[Thirteen Years' War (1454–66)|Thirteen Years' War]] -the Secret Council of the Prussian Confederation sends a formal act of disobedience to the Grand Masters of the Teutonic Knights|Grand Master.
1555 - [[John Rogers (Bible editor and martyr)|John Rogers]] -was a Religious minister|clergyman, Bible translator and commentator, and the first English Protestant martyr under Mary I of England.
1703 - [[Edo]] -(now Tokyo), 46 of the Forty-seven Ronin commit seppuku (ritual suicide) as recompense for avenging their master's death.
1758 - [[Macapá]] -Brazil is founded.
1789 - [[George Washington]] -is unanimously elected as the first President of the United States by the U.S. Electoral College.
1794 - [[slavery]] -throughout all territories of the French First Republic. It will be reestablished in the French West Indies in 1802.
1797 - [[1797 Riobamba earthquake|Riobamba earthquake]] -strikes Ecuador, causing up to 40,000 casualties.
1801 - [[John Marshall]] -is sworn in as Chief Justice of the United States.
1810 - [[Royal Navy]] -seizes Guadeloupe.
1820 - [[Chilean Navy]] -under the command of Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald|Lord Cochrane completes the 2-day long Capture of Valdivia with just 300 men and 2 ships.
1825 - [[Ohio Legislature]] -authorizes the construction of the Ohio and Erie Canal and the Miami and Erie Canal.
1846 - [[Mormon pioneers]] -make their exodus from Nauvoo, Illinois, westward towards Salt Lake Valley.
1859 - [[Codex Sinaiticus]] -is discovered in Egypt.
1861 - [[American Civil War]] -In Montgomery, Alabama, delegates from six break-away U.S. states meet and form the Confederate States of America.
1899 - [[Philippine–American War]] -begins with the Battle of Manila (1899)|Battle of Manila.
1932 - [[Second Sino-Japanese War]] -Harbin, Manchuria, Defense of Harbin|falls to Empire of Japan|Japan.
1936 - [[Radium]] -becomes the first radioactive element to be made synthetically.
1941 - [[United Service Organization]] -(USO) is created to entertain American troops.
1945 - [[World War II]] -Santo Tomas Internment Camp is liberated from Japanese authority.
1945 - [[Yalta Conference]] -between the "Big Three" (Winston Churchill|Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt|Roosevelt, and Joseph Stalin|Stalin) opens at the Livadia Palace in the Crimea#Soviet_Union:_1922.E2.80.931991|Crimea.
1945 - [[British Indian Army]] -and Imperial Japanese Army begin a series of battles known as the Battle of Pokoku and Irrawaddy River operations.
1948 - [[Ceylon]] -(later renamed Sri Lanka) becomes independent within the Commonwealth of Nations|British Commonwealth.
1961 - [[Angolan War of Independence]] -begins.
1966 - [[All Nippon Airways Flight 60]] -plunges into Tokyo Bay, killing 133.
1967 - [[Lunar Orbiter program]] -Lunar Orbiter 3 lifts off from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station|Cape Canaveral's Launch Complex 13 on its mission to identify possible landing sites for the Surveyor program|Surveyor and Apollo program|Apollo spacecraft.
1969 - [[Yasser Arafat]] -takes over as chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization.
1974 - [[Symbionese Liberation Army]] -kidnaps Patty Hearst in Berkeley, California.
1974 - [[M62 coach bombing]] -The Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) explodes a bomb on a bus carrying off-duty British Armed Forces personnel in Yorkshire, England. Nine soldiers and three civilians are killed.
1975 - [[1975 Haicheng earthquake|Haicheng earthquake]] -(magnitude 7.3 on the Richter magnitude scale|Richter scale) occurs in Haicheng, Liaoning, China.
1976 - [[Guatemala]] -and Honduras an 1976 Guatemala earthquake|earthquake kills more than 22,000.
1977 - [[Chicago Transit Authority]] -elevated train 1977 Chicago Loop derailment|rear-ends another and derails, killing 11 and injuring 180, the worst accident in the agency's history.
1980 - [[Ayatollah]] -Ruhollah Khomeini names Abolhassan Banisadr as president of Iran.
1992 - [[1992 Venezuelan coup d'état attempts|coup d'état]] -is led by Hugo Chávez against Venezuelan President Carlos Andrés Pérez.
1996 - [[Midwestern United States]] -Milwaukee|Milwaukee, Wisconsin and ties all-time record low temperature at −26 °F (−32.2 °C)
1997 - [[Lebanon]] -two Israeli Sikorsky CH-53 Sea Stallion|Sikorsky CH-53 troop-transport helicopters 1997 Israeli helicopter disaster|collide in mid-air over northern Galilee, Israel killing 73.
1997 - [[Serbia]] -President Slobodan Milošević recognizes opposition victories in the November 1996 elections.
1998 - [[February 4, 1998 Afghanistan earthquake|earthquake]] -measuring 6.1 on the Richter Scale in northeast Afghanistan kills more than 5,000.
1999 - [[Shooting of Amadou Diallo|Amadou Diallo is shot dead]] -by four plainclothes New York City police officers on an unrelated stake-out, inflaming race relations in the city.
2003 - [[Bengali Hindus]] -declare the independence of the Republic of Bangabhumi from Bangladesh.
2003 - [[Federal Republic of Yugoslavia]] -is officially renamed Serbia and Montenegro and adopts a new constitution.
2004 - [[Facebook]] -a mainstream online social networking site, is founded by Mark Zuckerberg.
2006 - [[PhilSports Stadium stampede|stampede]] -occurs in the PhilSports Arena near Manila, killing 71 people.
2015 - [[TransAsia Airways]] -TransAsia Airways Flight 235|aircraft with 58 people on board, en route from the Taiwanese capital Taipei to Kinmen, crashes into the Keelung River just after take-off, killing at least 31 people.
1505 - [[Mikołaj Rej]] -Polish poet and author (d. 1580)
1575 - [[Pierre de Bérulle]] -French cardinal and theologian, founded the French school of spirituality (d. 1629)
1639 - [[Alessandro Melani]] -Italian composer (d. 1703)
1646 - [[Hans Erasmus Aßmann]] -German poet and politician (d. 1699)
1676 - [[Giacomo Facco]] -Italian violinist and composer (d. 1753)
1677 - [[Johann Ludwig Bach]] -German violinist and composer (d. 1731)
1688 - [[Pierre de Marivaux]] -French author and playwright (d. 1763)
1725 - [[Dru Drury]] -English entomologist and author (d. 1804)
1740 - [[Carl Michael Bellman]] -Swedish poet and composer (d. 1795)
1778 - [[Augustin Pyramus de Candolle]] -Swiss botanist, mycologist, and academic (d. 1841)
1799 - [[Almeida Garrett]] -Portuguese journalist and author (d. 1854)
1808 - [[Josef Kajetán Tyl]] -Czech actor and playwright (d. 1856)
1831 - [[Oliver Ames]] -American financier and politician, 35th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1895)
1846 - [[Nikolay Umov]] -Russian physicist and mathematician (d. 1915)
1848 - [[Jean Aicard]] -French poet, author, and playwright (d. 1921)
1849 - [[Jean Richepin]] -French poet, author, and playwright (d. 1926)
1865 - [[Abe Isoo]] -Japanese minister and politician (d. 1949)
1870 - [[Constant van Langhendonck]] -Belgian horse rider (d. 1944)
1871 - [[Friedrich Ebert]] -German politician, 1st President of Germany (1919–1945)|President of Germany (d. 1925)
1872 - [[Gotse Delchev]] -Greek activist and educator (d. 1903)
1873 - [[Étienne Desmarteau]] -Canadian shot putter and discus thrower (d. 1905)
1875 - [[Ludwig Prandtl]] -German physicist and engineer (d. 1953)
1877 - [[Eddie Cochems]] -American football player and coach (d. 1953)
1881 - [[Fernand Léger]] -French painter and sculptor (d. 1955)
1883 - [[Jakob Sildnik]] -Estonian photographer and director (d. 1973)
1887 - [[Anna Hedvig Büll]] -Estonian-German missionary (d. 1981)
1891 - [[M. A. Ayyangar]] -Indian lawyer and politician, 2nd Speaker of the Lok Sabha (d. 1978)
1892 - [[Andrés Nin]] -Spanish politician (d. 1937)
1892 - [[E. J. Pratt]] -Canadian poet and academic (d. 1964)
1895 - [[Nigel Bruce]] -British actor (d. 1953)
1896 - [[Friedrich Glauser]] -Austrian-Swiss author (d. 1938)
1896 - [[Friedrich Hund]] -German physicist and academic (d. 1997)
1897 - [[Ludwig Erhard]] -German soldier and politician, 2nd Chancellor of Germany (Federal Republic of Germany)|Chancellor of West Germany (d. 1977)
1900 - [[Jacques Prévert]] -French poet and screenwriter (d. 1977)
1902 - [[Charles Lindbergh]] -American pilot and explorer (d. 1974)
1902 - [[Hartley Shawcross, Baron Shawcross]] -German-English lawyer and politician, Attorney General for England and Wales (d. 2003)
1903 - [[Alexander Imich]] -Polish-American chemist, parapsychologist, and academic (d. 2014)
1904 - [[MacKinlay Kantor]] -American author and screenwriter (d. 1977)
1906 - [[Dietrich Bonhoeffer]] -German pastor and theologian (d. 1945)
1906 - [[Clyde Tombaugh]] -American astronomer and academic, discovered Pluto (d. 1997)
1908 - [[Julian Bell]] -English poet and academic (d. 1937)
1912 - [[Ola Skjåk Bræk]] -Norwegian banker and politician, Ministry of Trade and Industry (Norway)|Norwegian Minister of Industry (d. 1999)
1912 - [[Erich Leinsdorf]] -Austrian-American conductor (d. 1993)
1912 - [[Byron Nelson]] -American golfer and sportscaster (d. 2006)
1912 - [[Louis-Albert Vachon]] -Canadian cardinal (d. 2006)
1913 - [[Rosa Parks]] -American activist (d. 2005)
1913 - [[Richard Seaman]] -English race car driver (d. 1939)
1914 - [[Alfred Andersch]] -German-Swiss author and publisher (d. 1980)
1915 - [[Ray Evans]] -American songwriter (d. 2007)
1915 - [[William Talman (actor)|William Talman]] -American actor and screenwriter (d. 1968)
1915 - [[Norman Wisdom]] -English comedian and actor (d. 2010)
1917 - [[Yahya Khan]] -Pakistan general and politician, 3rd President of Pakistan (d. 1980)
1918 - [[Ida Lupino]] -English-American actress and director (d. 1995)
1918 - [[Luigi Pareyson]] -Italian philosopher and author (d. 1991)
1920 - [[Janet Waldo]] -American actress
1921 - [[Betty Friedan]] -American author and activist (d. 2006)
1921 - [[Lotfi A. Zadeh]] -Azerbaijani-American mathematician and computer scientist
1922 - [[Bhimsen Joshi]] -Indian singer (d. 2011)
1923 - [[Bonar Bain]] -Canadian actor (d. 2005)
1923 - [[Conrad Bain]] -Canadian-American actor (d. 2013)
1925 - [[Russell Hoban]] -American author and illustrator (d. 2011)
1925 - [[Stanley Karnow]] -American journalist and historian (d. 2013)
1925 - [[Christopher Zeeman]] -Japanese-English mathematician and academic
1926 - [[Gyula Grosics]] -Hungarian footballer and manager (d. 2014)
1927 - [[Rolf Landauer]] -German-American physicist and academic (d. 1999)
1927 - [[A. J. P. Ponrajah]] -Sri Lankan engineer (d. 1986)
1928 - [[Osmo Antero Wiio]] -Finnish journalist, academic, and politician (d. 2013)
1929 - [[Jerry Adler]] -American actor, director, and producer
1929 - [[Julien Chouinard]] -Canadian lawyer and judge (d. 1987)
1929 - [[Eduard Zimmermann]] -German journalist (d. 2009)
1930 - [[Tibor Antalpéter]] -Hungarian volleyball player and diplomat, List of Ambassadors of Hungary to the United Kingdom|Hungarian Ambassador to the United Kingdom (d. 2012)
1931 - [[Isabel Martínez de Perón]] -Argentinian politician, 41st President of Argentina
1933 - [[Igor Kvasha]] -Russian actor (d. 2012)
1935 - [[Ali Nassirian]] -Iranian actor and screenwriter
1935 - [[Martti Talvela]] -Finnish opera singer (d. 1989)
1936 - [[David Brenner]] -American comedian, actor, and author (d. 2014)
1936 - [[Claude Nobs]] -Swiss businessman, founded the Montreux Jazz Festival (d. 2013)
1937 - [[David Newman (screenwriter)|David Newman]] -American director and screenwriter (d. 2003)
1938 - [[Birju Maharaj]] -Indian dancer and choreographer
1940 - [[George A. Romero]] -American director and producer
1941 - [[Jiří Raška]] -Czech skier and coach (d. 2012)
1943 - [[Alberto João Jardim]] -Portuguese journalist and politician, 2nd Presidents of the Regional Government of Madeira|President of the Regional Government of Madeira
1943 - [[Wanda Rutkiewicz]] -Lithuanian-Polish mountaineer (d. 1992)
1943 - [[Ken Thompson]] -American computer scientist, co-developed the B (programming language)|B programming language
1947 - [[Dennis C. Blair]] -American admiral and politician, 3rd Director of National Intelligence
1947 - [[Dan Quayle]] -American sergeant, lawyer, and politician, 44th Vice President of the United States
1948 - [[Alice Cooper]] -American singer-songwriter and actor
1948 - [[Rod Grams]] -American journalist and politician (d. 2013)
1948 - [[Mienoumi Tsuyoshi]] -Japanese sumo wrestler
1949 - [[Michael Beck]] -American actor
1949 - [[Rasim Delić]] -Bosnian general (d. 2010)
1951 - [[Patrick Bergin]] -Irish actor and singer
1951 - [[Dariush Eghbali]] -Iranian singer-songwriter
1952 - [[Lisa Eichhorn]] -American actress and producer
1952 - [[Jenny Shipley]] -New Zealand educator and politician, 36th Prime Minister of New Zealand
1952 - [[Bolesław Proch]] -Polish motorcycle racer (d. 2012)
1952 - [[Li Yinhe]] -Chinese sociologist and sexologist
1953 - [[Kitarō]] -Japanese keyboard player, composer, and producer
1955 - [[Mikuláš Dzurinda]] -Slovak politician, Prime Minister of Slovakia
1957 - [[Don Davis (composer)|Don Davis]] -American composer and conductor
1958 - [[Tomasz Pacyński]] -Polish journalist and author (d. 2005)
1959 - [[Christian Schreier]] -German footballer and manager
1959 - [[Lawrence Taylor]] -American football player and sportscaster
1960 - [[Siobhan Dowd]] -British author and activist (d. 2007)
1960 - [[Jenette Goldstein]] -American actress
1960 - [[Adrienne King]] -American actress, dancer, and painter
1960 - [[Jonathan Larson]] -American composer and playwright (d. 1996)
1961 - [[Denis Savard]] -Canadian ice hockey player and coach
1962 - [[Stephen Hammond]] -English banker and politician
1962 - [[Alfred Twardecki]] -Polish historian and curator
1963 - [[Pirmin Zurbriggen]] -Swiss skier
1966 - [[Viatcheslav Ekimov]] -Russian cyclist
1966 - [[Kyōko Koizumi]] -Japanese actress and singer
1967 - [[Sergei Grinkov]] -Russian figure skater (d. 1995)
1968 - [[Marko Matvere]] -Estonian actor
1969 - [[Duncan Coutts]] -Canadian bass player and songwriter (Our Lady Peace)
1969 - [[Dallas Drake]] -Canadian ice hockey player and coach
1970 - [[Gabrielle Anwar]] -English actress
1971 - [[Eric Garcetti]] -American lieutenant and politician, 42nd Mayor of Los Angeles
1972 - [[Dara Ó Briain]] -Irish comedian and television host
1972 - [[Giovanni Silva de Oliveira]] -Brazilian footballer and manager
1973 - [[Oscar De La Hoya]] -American boxer and singer
1973 - [[Manny Legace]] -Canadian ice hockey player and sportscaster
1974 - [[Mijntje Donners]] -Dutch field hockey player
1974 - [[Urmila Matondkar]] -Indian actress
1975 - [[Natalie Imbruglia]] -Australian singer-songwriter and actress
1976 - [[Cam'ron]] -American rapper and actor (The Diplomats)
1977 - [[Gavin DeGraw]] -American singer-songwriter and actor
1978 - [[Danna García]] -Colombian actress
1978 - [[Shingo Kawaguchi]] -Japanese actor
1978 - [[Ömer Onan]] -Turkish basketball player and manager
1979 - [[Andrei Arlovski]] -Belarusian mixed martial artist and actor
1979 - [[Giorgio Pantano]] -Italian race car driver
1980 - [[Raimonds Vaikulis]] -Latvian basketball player
1981 - [[Jason Kapono]] -America basketball player
1981 - [[Johan Vansummeren]] -Belgian cyclist
1982 - [[Chris Sabin]] -American wrestler
1982 - [[Ivars Timermanis]] -Latvian basketball player
1982 - [[Tomas Vaitkus]] -Lithuanian cyclist
1982 - [[Kimberly Wyatt]] -American singer-songwriter and dancer (The Pussycat Dolls and Her Majesty & the Wolves)
1983 - [[Lee Stempniak]] -American ice hockey player
1984 - [[Sandeep Acharya]] -Indian singer (d. 2013)
1984 - [[Mauricio Pinilla]] -Chilean footballer
1986 - [[Asif Ali]] -Indian actor
1986 - [[Mahmudullah Riyad]] -Bangladeshi cricketer
1987 - [[Darren O'Dea]] -Irish footballer
1989 - [[Shogo Suzuki (actor)|Shogo Suzuki]] -Japanese actor and musician
1990 - [[Haruka Tomatsu]] -Japanese voice actress and singer (Sphere (Japanese band)|Sphere)
1997 - [[Ayami Nakajō]] -Japanese actress and model
History of Deaths
211 - [[Septimius Severus]] -Roman emperor (b. 145)
708 - [[Pope Sisinnius]] -(b. 650)
856 - [[Rabanus Maurus]] -Frankish archbishop and theologian (b. 780)
1508 - [[Conrad Celtes]] -German poet and scholar (b. 1459)
1555 - [[John Rogers (Bible editor and martyr)|John Rogers]] -English clergyman, Bible translator and commentator (b. 1505)
1590 - [[Gioseffo Zarlino]] -Italian composer and theorist (b. 1517)
1615 - [[Giambattista della Porta]] -Italian playwright and scholar (b. 1535)
1615 - [[Dom Justo Takayama]] -Japanese daimyo (b. 1552)
1617 - [[Lodewijk Elzevir]] -Dutch publisher, co-founded the House of Elzevir (b. 1546)
1694 - [[Natalya Naryshkina]] -Russian wife of Alexis of Russia (b. 1651)
1713 - [[Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury]] -English philosopher and politician (b. 1671)
1774 - [[Charles Marie de La Condamine]] -French mathematician and geographer (b. 1701)
1799 - [[Étienne-Louis Boullée]] -French architect and educator (b. 1728)
1781 - [[Josef Mysliveček]] -Czech composer (b. 1737)
1843 - [[Theodoros Kolokotronis]] -Greek general (b. 1770)
1894 - [[Adolphe Sax]] -Belgian instrument maker, invented the Saxophone (b. 1814)
1905 - [[Louis-Ernest Barrias]] -French sculptor and academic (b. 1841)
1912 - [[Franz Reichelt]] -Austrian-French tailor (b. 1879)
1926 - [[İskilipli Mehmed Atıf Hoca]] -Turkish author and scholar (b. 1875)
1928 - [[Hendrik Lorentz]] -Dutch physicist and academic, Nobel Prize in Physics|Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1853)
1933 - [[Archibald Sayce]] -English linguist and educator (b. 1846)
1936 - [[Wilhelm Gustloff]] -Swiss politician (b. 1895)
1940 - [[Nikolai Yezhov]] -Russian police officer and politician (b. 1895)
1943 - [[Frank Calder]] -English-Canadian ice hockey player and journalist (b. 1877)
1944 - [[Arsen Kotsoyev]] -Russian author and translator (b. 1872)
1956 - [[Savielly Tartakower]] -Russian-French chess player (b. 1887)
1958 - [[Henry Kuttner]] -American author and screenwriter (b. 1915)
1959 - [[Una O'Connor (actress)|Una O'Connor]] -Irish-American actress (b. 1880)
1968 - [[Neal Cassady]] -American author and poet (b. 1926)
1974 - [[Satyendra Nath Bose]] -Indian physicist, mathematician, and academic (b. 1894)
1975 - [[Louis Jordan]] -American singer-songwriter and saxophonist (Tympany Five) (b. 1908)
1982 - [[Georg Konrad Morgen]] -German lawyer and judge (b. 1909)
1983 - [[Karen Carpenter]] -American singer and drummer (The Carpenters) (b. 1950)
1984 - [[Patrick Nagel]] -American painter and illustrator (b. 1945)
1987 - [[Liberace]] -American singer-songwriter, pianist, and actor (b. 1919)
1987 - [[Meena Keshwar Kamal]] -Afghan activist, founded the Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan (b. 1956)
1987 - [[Carl Rogers]] -American psychologist and academic (b. 1902)
1992 - [[Lisa Fonssagrives]] -Swedish-American model and dancer (b. 1911)
1994 - [[Fred De Bruyne]] -Belgian cyclist and manager (b. 1930)
1995 - [[Godfrey Brown]] -Indian-English runner and educator (b. 1915)
1995 - [[Patricia Highsmith]] -American-Swiss author (b. 1921)
2000 - [[Carl Albert]] -American lawyer and politician, 54th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives (b. 1908)
2001 - [[Mahmud Esad Coşan]] -Turkish preacher, author, and academic author (b. 1938)
2001 - [[J. J. Johnson]] -American trombonist and composer (b. 1924)
2001 - [[Pankaj Roy]] -Indian cricketer (b. 1928)
2001 - [[Iannis Xenakis]] -Greek-French composer and architect (b. 1922)
2002 - [[George Nader]] -American actor (b. 1921)
2002 - [[Count Sigvard Bernadotte of Wisborg]] -(b. 1907)
2003 - [[Benyoucef Benkhedda]] -Algerian pharmacist and politician (b. 1920)
2003 - [[André Noyelle]] -Belgian cyclist (b. 1931)
2005 - [[Ossie Davis]] -American actor, director, and playwright (b. 1917)
2006 - [[Betty Friedan]] -American author and activist (b. 1921)
2007 - [[José Carlos Bauer]] -Brazilian footballer and manager (b. 1925)
2007 - [[Ilya Kormiltsev]] -Russian-English poet and translator (b. 1959)
2007 - [[Jules Olitski]] -Ukrainian-American painter and sculptor (b. 1922)
2008 - [[Augusta Dabney]] -American actress (b. 1918)
2008 - [[Stefan Meller]] -Polish academic and politician, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Poland (b. 1942)
2010 - [[Kostas Axelos]] -Greek-French philosopher and author (b. 1924)
2011 - [[Martial Célestin]] -Haitian lawyer and politician, 1st Prime Minister of Haiti (b. 1913)
2012 - [[István Csurka]] -Hungarian journalist and politician (b. 1934)
2012 - [[Florence Green]] -English soldier (b. 1901)
2012 - [[János Sebestyén]] -Hungarian organist (b. 1931)
2013 - [[Donald Byrd]] -American trumpet player (b. 1932)
2014 - [[Eugenio Corti]] -Italian soldier, author, and playwright (b. 1921)
2014 - [[Dennis Lota]] -Zambian footballer (b. 1973)
2014 - [[Wu Ma]] -Chinese actor, director, producer, and screenwriter (b. 1942)